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Wednesday, 3 March 2010

Rolex 12

Rolex 12 is the collective name of twelve of the closest and most powerful advisers of President Ferdinand Marcos during the martial law years in the Philippines from 1972 to 1981.
During the latter years of his second elected term, Marcos conspired with various leaders of the military and Philippine Constabulary. The goal was for Marcos to gain full authoritarian control of the country during his declaration of martial law in 1972. Marcos gave the military leadership powers during martial law, taking over from democratically elected officials and court judges.

The twelve were responsible for many human rights atrocities, although the extent of their responsibility is still being investigated. These atrocities include torture, murder, seizures of property, displacement from homes, and arrest and detention without due process.

The origin of the name Rolex 12 came from a widespread story and some sources that each associate received a Rolex watch from Marcos himself, although this is allegedly proven to be untrue. Others, however, would pursue the argument that Marcos provided them with watches that appear to be Rolex watches but were actually fakes. Historically, each member was just given an ordinary watch by Marcos. But because of the story, the name Rolex 12 stuck and is still used to refer to these twelve Marcos associates. Some of them fled with Marcos when he and his family left the Philippines in 1986.

• Tomas Diaz, PMA-Cl '51 - Vice Chief of the Philippine Constabulary
• Juan Ponce Enrile - Minister of Defense
• Romeo Espino UP-ROTC - Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP)
• Romeo Gatan - Chief of the Philippine Constabulary in Rizal Province
• Alfredo Montoya, PMA Cl-'51 -Chief of the Philippine Constabulary Metropolitan Command (METROCOM)
• Ignacio Paz, PMA Cl-'51 - Chief of the Intelligence Services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (ISAFP)
• Fidel V. Ramos,USMA Cl '50; Honoray PMA Cl-51 -Chief of the Philippine Constabulary (PC)
• Jose Rancudo - Chief of the Philippine Air Force (PAF)
• Hilario Ruiz -Chief of the Philippine Navy (PN)
• Rafael Zagala -Chief of the Philippine Army (PA)
• Fabian Ver, Honorary-PMA Cl '51 - Chief of National Intelligence Security Authority (NISA)[1]
• Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco, Jr. - Honorary PMA Cl-'51 - present Chairman of San Miguel Corporation.

* lifted from WIKIPEDIA

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